Motion Gestalt for Screen Design:

Applied Theory of Grouping Principles for Visual Motion Integrity

© Jinsook Kim                      

 

 

 

Motion-Grouping Principles:

Motion-Similarity

Motion-Proximity

Motion-Common-fate

Motion-Good-continuation

Motion-Closure

 

 

 

Experiments

Motion-Similarity by Direction

ViewerÕs ability to group the same speed and/or direction as the elements of motion 

http://www.motiongestalt.com/direhalf.mov

(Script) The two squares are grouped because of the same configuration (similarity by shape). However, the two squares are moving in different directions throughout the movie and one square and a circle's directions are analogous. The experiment tried to observe if subjects see the square and circle in a similar direction as a group regarding Motion Similarity by Direction as opposed to similarity by shape.

 

Motion-Similarity by Speed

ViewerÕs ability to group the same speed and/or direction as the elements of motion 

http://www.motiongestalt.com/speehalf.mov

(Script) One of squares and a circle are moving in the same speed. They are faster in movement than the other square. Two squares are supposed to be grouped in terms of the same configurations regarding similarity by shape. The experiment tried to observe if subjects saw as a group one of squares and a circle regarding Motion Similarity by Speed as opposed to similarity by shape. 

 

Motion-Proximity

Viewer’s ability to group smooth and natural motion by frequent and regular intervals of time       

http://www.motiongestalt.com/proxhalf.mov

(Script) One sporadic motion and one consecutive motion were designed in Spatial Adjacency. Another consecutive motion was designed in Spatial Distance - the distance was maintained throughout the movie. The experiment tried to observe if subjects see the two consecutive motion events as a group regarding Motion Proximity against Spatial Distance.

 

Motion-Common-fate

ViewerÕs ability to group parallel movements and the repetition of the cycles to strengthen the association of moving objects                   

http://www.motiongestalt.com/commhalf.mov

(Script) Four objects are moving together in similar speed; the two squares and the two circles are grouping throughout the movie because of the same configuration (similarity by shape). Furthermore, the two circles are in Spatial Adjacency. However, three of them - the two squares and the one of circles are moving in parallel in a repetitive manner. The experiment tried to observe if subjects see the three of them together separating from the other circle regarding Motion Common-fate as opposed to similarity by shape and Spatial Adjacency at the same time on screen.

 

Motion-Good-continuation

ViewerÕs ability to track causation as a syntax of motion events––it overcomes time gaps       

http://www.motiongestalt.com/goodhalf.mov

(Script) Three objects are moving together. They are two circles and a square in the same size and color. The two circles are constant in their status of moving while a square appears randomly. The two circles are grouped because of the same configuration (similarity by speed) as well as the nature of their movement - they are constant. However, the square appears spontaneously in relation to a causative reason associated with one of circles such that every time one of the circles changes its angle to turn to the left side edge, the square appears, and it disappears when the circle comes back to the original position where the circle changed angle, or vice versa. The experiment tried to observe if subjects saw one of circles and a square as a group regarding Motion Good-continuation against similarity by shape and one of simple status of moving - contiguous (for the two circles).

 

Motion-Closure

ViewerÕs ability to summarize motion events in terms of ab­breviation of passages                  

http://www.motiongestalt.com/closhalf.mov

(Script) Four objects are moving together with different speed and direction; they have the same size, but they have variety in color as well as in the movement. There are two squares and two circles. The squares are moving in parallel, but the circles, and sometimes all of them are moving together in the same speed and direction. The squares move drastically down from the top in regular fashion, and slightly shake themselves several times during the trip to the top again. The circles are moving around the squares with different speeds, and with many behavioral changes. The experiment tried to observe if movements that are more significant subsume other less significant movements by the viewers.

 

 

 

Dominance

Dominance of one principle to another among the five primary principles is established. The discussion expects to legitimate the possibility of Gestalt in motion regarding a valid extension of a gestalt theory for screen design.

 

Motion-Proximity vs. Motion-Common-fate

http://www.motiongestalt.com/proxvscomm.mov

(Script) Viewers are visually oriented by interactive information, i.e., emerging and merging, and describe a replication event coordinated by parallel movement regarding Motion Common-fate rather than individual instances from ISI regarding Motion Proximity. Analysis of the experiment shows significant dominance over Motion Proximity by Motion Common-fate.

 

Motion-Proximity vs. Motion-Similarity by Direction

http://www.motiongestalt.com/proxvsdire.mov

(Script) A series of three perfect squares of the same color are moving. Motion Similarity by direction versus Motion Proximity concerns grouping by directional characters over choppy movement. Viewers recover imperfect movement owing to longer ISI by grouping through same direction in space and time. The finding is suggestive for merging multiple directions into a specified directional character to identify or summarize numerous directional characters, but more study is required to establish a definitive answer.

 

Motion-Similarity by Direction vs. Motion-Good-continuation

http://www.motiongestalt.com/direvsgood.mov

(Script) Four objects had one major direction; up and down movement. The movement altered when another event, such as periodic movements joined and reproduced a causal relation among the objects. While an indication of a major direction importantly appeared in the subjectsÕ reports, they highlighted the causal relationship with the circle, square and the other square. Motion Similarity by direction versus Motion Good-continuation concerns grouping by the instances of causation over directional relations in space and time.




Link to Dissertation Abstract

http://www.motiongestalt.com/abstract.htm

 

Link to Dissertation

https://www.academia.edu/636280/Motion_Gestalt_for_Screen_Design_theory

 

Contact

gdjinsook@gmail.com